Stoler and F. Cooper, ‘Between Metropole and Colony: Rethinking a Research Agenda’, in eid., eds., Tensions of Empire: Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World (Berkeley, CA, 1997). The first agent of German imperialism was Carl Peters, who, with Count Joachim von Pfeil and Karl Juhlke, evaded the sultan of Zanzibar late in 1884 to land on the mainland and made a number of “contracts” in the Usambara area by which several chiefs were said … Wehler, Das deutsche Kaiserreich, 1871–1918 (Göttingen, 1973); A. Césaire, Discours sur le colonialisme (Paris, 1955); H. Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York, 1966); R. Gerwarth and S. Malinowski, ‘Hannah Arendt’s Ghost: Reflections on the Disputable Path from Windhoek to Auschwitz’, Central European History, xlii (2009), pp.  In the Pacific colonies in 1913 there were 1,645 Germans.  The vast majority of German emigrants chose North America as their destination and not the colonies – of 1,085,124 emigrants between 1887 and 1906, 1,007,574 headed to the United States. , Dar es Salaam evolved into "the showcase city of all of tropical Africa," Lomé grew into the "prettiest city in western Africa", and Tsingtao, China was, "in miniature, as German a city as Hamburg or Bremen".  For indigenous populations in some colonies native agricultural holdings were encouraged and supported. In August 2018, more than one hundred years after the end of German rule over South West Africa, the German Foreign Office oversaw the repatriation of the remains of several Ovaherero/Ovambanderu and Nama to Namibia. " However, in 1884 he consented to the acquisition of colonies by the German Empire, in order to protect trade, safeguard raw materials and export markets and take advantage of opportunities for capital investment, among other reasons. , The Dualas, a Bantu group in Cameroon readily welcomed German policies The number of German-speaking Africans increased in four West African German colonies prior to 1914. See, for example, D. Lambert and A. Lester, eds., Colonial Lives across the British Empire: Imperial Careering in the Long Nineteenth Century (New York, 2006); C. Jeppesen, ‘“Sanders of the River, Still the Best Job for a British Boy”: Colonial Administrative Service Recruitment at the End of Empire’, Historical Journal, lix (2016), pp. The most fascinating and analytical chapter, in this reader’s opinion, is Chapter Five, a collective biography of missionary workers in Tanganyika. A number of nationalities existed in the te… He demonstrates above all that indigenous reactions to public health measures to control venereal disease varied. , Research by bacteriologists Robert Koch and Paul Ehrlich and other scientists was funded by the imperial treasury and was freely shared with other nations. This meant they were supposed to be "prepared" for independence by Allied powers, namely Britain, France, Belgium, and South Africa. 33 percent to France, and 25 percent to Belgium. The Forum is housing nearly 20,000 artefacts from Africa, Asia and Oceania, mostly former colonies. The high-quality and fluent translation makes it accessible to a wider audience. Historicus Africanus: "Der 1.  The victors retained the German overseas possessions and did so with the belief that Australian, Belgian, British, French, Japanese, New Zealand, Portuguese and South African rule was superior to Germany's. Her portrayal of the conflicts also acknowledges the mixed nature of the fighting forces, including ‘hybridised forces’, volunteers in the regular army, navy and marine, Chinese forces, ‘native’ contingents in South West and East Africa, rugaruga (irregular African troops), mercenaries and protection forces. 469–508. Eugene Fischer, an anthropologist at the University of Freiburg, agreed with that notion saying that they should only be supported as necessary and as they prove to be useful. Here, Walther offers a convincing case for a focus on venereal disease (VD) partly because of the sheer numbers involved. Controlling the nation through control of (particularly women’s) bodies has long been a theme in German history. The book is not a systematic study in comparative history; several examples from the British context are instead woven into the discussion at choice moments in order to put the German case into perspective. Around half of them died and the venture was a complete failure.  In Africa (1913), 12,292 Germans lived in Southwest Africa, 4,107 in German East Africa and 1,643 in Cameroon.  , Social Darwinism is the theory, "that human groups and races are subject to the same laws of natural selection as Charles Darwin had perceived in plants and animals in nature. Entrenched incompetents were screened out and summarily removed from office and "not a few had to stand trial. Every African protectorate built rail lines to the interior, every colony in Africa and the Pacific established the beginnings of a public school system, and every colony built and staffed hospitals. Overall, whereas Hull focuses on the military as an institution, Kuss focuses on space. Despite the negative effects suffered from colonization, overall African colonies benefited greatly and were positively influenced from German colonization. Public opinion eventually arrived at an understanding that prestigious African and Pacific colonies went hand-in-hand with dreams of a High Seas Fleet. Kuss engages in a systematic explanation of the battle at the Waterberg plateau, focusing not just on the infamous ‘extermination order’, as many non-military historians are wont to do, but explaining the contingent factors, including the rather desperate military situation of the Germans at Hamakari up to that point. The book is divided into eight chapters.  Others who followed, especially Bernhard von Bülow, as foreign minister and chancellor, sanctioned the acquisition of the Pacific Ocean colonies and provided substantial treasury assistance to existing protectorates to employ administrators, commercial agents, surveyors, local "peacekeepers" and tax collectors. History In Africa. There were also suspicions and reports of colonial malfeasance, corruption and brutality in some protectorates, and Lutheran and Roman Catholic missionaries dispatched disturbing reports to their mission headquarters in Germany. Staff specialists and the occasional visiting university group conducted soil analyses, developed plant hybrids, experimented with fertilizers, studied vegetable pests and ran courses in agronomy for settlers and natives and performed a host of other tasks. "German Colonialism and the Age of Global Empires.". To varying degrees, they pick up on four broad trends within the burgeoning field of German colonial history: an increasing sensitivity to histories of the colonised; contextualising German colonial history within a wider European imperial framework; sustained attention to the transnational turn; and tracing the impact of empire on the colonial metropole. 279–300. East-West-North-South Africa: The English established her colonies in East, West, North and South Africa. "Reparations for Historical Human Rights Violations: The International and Historical Dimensions of the Alien Torts Claims Act Genocide Case of the Herero of Namibia." Readers learn, for example, that German doctors attributed the spread of syphilis above all to unmarried white working-class men, although they also blamed Arab and Muslim populations in the African colonies, as well as Japanese and Chinese people in the Pacific territories. It is a strength in so far as it has generated a specific, detailed and well-researched study, but also a weakness because it forecloses discussion of the wider resonances of these conflicts. " The British position that Germany was a uniquely brutal and cruel colonial power originated during the war; it had not been said during peacetime.. Germany lost control of its colonial empire when the First World War began in 1914, in which all of its colonies were invaded by the Allies during the first weeks of the war. " While German forces were largely given free rein by the German government, the British commander, Major General Alfred Gaselee, was expected to inform the Foreign Office of any involvement in expeditions.50 Like Walther, Kuss is thus aware of the importance of a comparative perspective in her analysis. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription.  Medical doctors the world over benefited from pioneering work into tropical diseases and German pharmaceutical discoveries "became a standard therapy for sleeping sickness and relapsing fever. Hull, Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War (Ithaca, NY, 2005). , Many Germans in the late 19th century viewed colonial acquisitions as a true indication of having achieved nationhood.  At Apia and the settlements Finschhafen, Simpsonhafen and the islands Neu-Pommern and Neu-Mecklenburg, trading companies newly fortified with credit began expansion into coastal landholding. An explanation for such behaviour is not to be found in a particular and specifically German will to extermination as claimed by a number of scholars, but the complete inexperience and ignorance of colonial warfare on the part of the soldiers involved.’ 51, The author is frequently implicitly in dialogue with Isabel Hull, whose analysis of the Herero War (also in comparison to the Maji Maji and Boxer Wars) similarly calls for military specificities over ideology. 7–8). The colonial past has also become a major talking-point within Germany. Carl Peters was a German explorer, journalist and philosopher, instrumental in the founding of German East Africa and helped create the European "Scramble for Africa". For the territories of Nazi Germany, see, German colonies and protectorates in 1914, Company land acquisitions and stewardship. Kuss analyses the causes and forms of violence perpetrated by the German Empire in three major colonial conflicts: the Boxer War in China (1900–01), the Herero–Nama War in German South West Africa (1904–07/8), and the Maji Maji War in German East Africa (1905–07/8). “Germany's Trade with Her Colonies, 1884-1914.”, Lahti, Janne. Closer scrutiny of these tables, however, shows a patchiness of data that is only briefly reflected on in the text.17 The gaps in the data become particularly apparent when looking at Table 6, showing venereal diseases in German South West Africa from 1902/03 to 1911/12, where statistics are missing for half the years.  Anglo-German colonial issues in the decade before 1914 were minor and both empires, the British and German, took conciliatory attitudes. Attention to a possible overlap between discourses which focus on the working class in colony and metropole and on the racial underclass abroad, though briefly mentioned, might have been pursued further. The discussion pays particular attention to the multi-ethnic nature of these conflicts, as well as to the selective approaches to violence employed by the intervening forces. This is followed by a chapter zooming in on individual experiences, though not abandoning the biographical approach. A small German ethnic minority also resides in the country. , facilitated such thinking ; he saw his commission to also turn the colonies the! Data concerning white Europeans ( chs not lose the specificity of each conflict saw! Time and only in remote jungle regions in East, West, North and Africa!, Wehler, Hans-Ulrich `` Bismarck 's tenure of office of oxford clerks German! Turned to the European continent viewed colonial acquisitions as a true indication of achieved... 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