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It was a covert outfit which recruited Tibetans (now it has a mixture of Tibetans and Gorkhas) and initially went by the name of Establishment 22. Here’s A Peek Into India’s Secretive Special Frontier Force Raised In 1962 To Counter The Chinese . Because its Modi govt now, the show off govt. Special Frontier Force: Formed after 1962 war with China, secretive outfit was trained by IB, CIA and R&AW It is important to note that the SFF is not part of the Indian Army but rather falls under under the Directorate General of Security (DGS), a covert … Special Frontier Force. 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Their training, the source added, is akin to that imparted to commandos and special forces. However, former CIA officer John Kennet Knaus, who worked extensively in Tibet, wrote in Orphans of the Cold War: America and the Tibetan Struggle for Survival that while the SFF had “Washington’s full endorsement”, it was B N Mullik, chief of India’s Intelligence Bureau, who created the SFF “on his own”. 995 likes. Special Frontier Force (SFF) also known as Establishment 22 is India’s most covert and elite Special Force unit which was established in 1962 right after the Sino-Indian War. This is why the spotlight on the SFF in the recent Ladakh operation is unprecedented. The SSF training centre is in Chakrata, 100 km outside Dehradun. The SFF soldiers were awarded for their bravery for their role in the 1971 war. SFF is headed by the Inspector General (IG) who works under the supervision of Director General of Security, Cabinet Secretariat (this post is held ex-officio by the Secretary, Research and Analysis Wing) (R&AW). The SFF was raised by the Intelligence Bureau in the immediate aftermath of the 1962 China-India war. Also as it is intended to be an infiltration force in Tibet, a majority Nepalese manned force is going to run into problems with the local population. Sustaining journalism of this quality needs smart and thinking people like you to pay for it. More advanced training takes place at Stakna in Ladakh to simulate high-altitude paradrops. Transport is provided by the Indian Air Force's Sarasawa base… “There is some debate over whether this secretive force has preserved its elite status as well as its original mandate.”(Rehman, 2017, p.118). While there is no official confirmation from the Indian government, according to multiple official sources, the Special Frontier Forces (SFF) – a covert paramilitary unit consisting mainly of Tibetan refugees – is believed to have played a major role in what the Indian Army called an operation to “thwart Chinese intentions” on the night of August 29. In an interview to. All about Special Frontier Force, the secretive Indian unit in news after... News from the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in Ladakh this week included reports of a Tibetan trooper’s death in a blast at Pangong Tso, one of the sites of, The reports of Tenzin Nyima’s death in a landmine blast, emergence of images showing his body wrapped. “They are trained extensively in various aspects of mountain warfare and are mostly deployed as part of India’s defence against China, but details of most of their operations are classified,” the source said. The covert outfit recruited Tibetan exiles (now it has a mixture of Tibetans and Gorkhas) and was initially named Establishment 22 (Major Gen Sujan Singh Uban, an Artillery officer who raised the group, named it after the 22 Mountain Regiment he commanded). There is also a force of around 700 Gorkhas in the SFF at any given time. The central armed police forces involved in border-guarding duties don’t come under the Ministry of Defence (MoD) but under the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). SFF units, also known as Vikas battalions, come under the direct purview of the Cabinet Secretariat, and is operationally involved with the Army. Copyright © 2020 Printline Media Pvt. China has not been too pleased about the reports, wary as it has been about the Tibetan government-in-exile and spiritual leader Dalai Lama setting up base in India after their escape in the wake of a failed uprising against Chinese occupation in 1959. New Delhi: News from the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in Ladakh this week included reports of a Tibetan trooper’s death in a blast at Pangong Tso, one of the sites of tensions between India and China. The SFF was raised by the Intelligence Bureau in the immediate aftermath of the 1962 China-India war. However, they are special forces personnel highly trained for a variety of tasks. The SFF has a separate control because it also has Tibetan refugees and involves another country. The SFF is based in Chakrata, Uttarakhand, and its insignia is a snow lion. If it is meant to be secretive, why are putting the information in public domain? China has not. You have entered an incorrect email address! This is the first time that the SSF, a secretive force, has been so much in the public eye. “Both the Indian and Pakistani Special Forces were established with the active involvement of the CIA in the mid-1950s. Social media is abuzz about the Special Frontier Force (SFF) unit which outsmarted the PLA and managed to take control of strategic height in the eastern Ladakh. कठोर सेवा। कम मेवा ,यहां भेदभाव अनुचित है। Tenzin says he’s proud that his son was wounded in battlefield pic.twitter.com/BQ7A2GUPNk, — Abhishek Bhalla (@AbhishekBhalla7) September 5, 2020, Also Read: Indian troops are using ‘new rules of engagement’ along LAC to counter Chinese aggression, Subscribe to our channels on YouTube & Telegram, Why news media is in crisis & How you can fix it. The Chinese were not allowed to dominate and India is holding at an advantageous position thanks to Special Frontier Force … So if it’s a secret unit and giving results, you could have kept your mouth shut. that the majority of Tibetan youngsters strive to join the defence forces. How was Rahane's captaincy different from Virat Kohli's? All about Special Frontier Force, the secretive Indian unit in news after Ladakh clash SFF, primarily drawn from Tibetan refugees, was formed in the immediate aftermath of the 1962 war with China. Not officially. Teshi Tanzin, the latter’s father, later told India Today that the majority of Tibetan youngsters strive to join the defence forces. Initially known as Establishment 22, the SFF was raised by an Army officer named Major General Sujan Singh Uban. for guerrilla campaigns to attack enemy soldiers, military infrastructure, communication lines, logistics and weapons supplies. By one estimate, over 3,000 SFF personnel were used in the eastern theatre of the 1971 war. Very inspiring. Special Frontier Force-The Problem of Espionage: Establishment No. There are several overt and covert operations in which SFF units have taken part over the years, including Operation Blue Star in Golden Temple Amritsar, the Kargil conflict, and counter-insurgency operations. Initially, the para training takes place at Sarsawa near Saharanpur, where the Aviation Research Centre, R&AW’s covert air wing, has a base. The Special Frontier Force is a covert paramilitary special force which operates under India's external intelligence agency R&AW and reports directly to the Cabinet Secretariat. There have been brutal layoffs and pay-cuts. The Special Frontier Force also known as Vikas Regiment aka Establishment 22 is India’s Elite Special forces unit which mainly focuses its operations against the Chinese Action.The Special Frontier Force is not a part of Indian Army but they function under the operational control of Army. Now he has to deliver, 19 SARS-CoV-2 mutations in India can evade antibodies, 1 causes reinfection — CSIR study. Mullick and the US intelligence agency CIA. Army trucks move towards Ladakh via the Leh-Manali Highway, in Manali, Monday, August 31, 2020. The Spirits of Special Frontier Force, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Special Frontier Force: Why is a covert group now under the spotlight? The decision to form an all-Tibetan armed unit was made on November 14, 1962, as the Chinese military continued its advance into Indian territory. SFF … A large number of them received bravery awards. Its not easy to breathe let alone fight in such high altitude low oxygen environments. SSF units have their own rank structures, of equivalent status with Army ranks. The cohesion of the unit is probably not as good as claimed because the Nepalese are in the majority and hired guns. In that war, SFF battalions were deployed next to the Chittagong Hill Tracts — a hilly area as the name suggests — that lie to the southeast of East Pakistan. 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Nyima was a member of the Special Frontier Force (SFF), an Indian security unit that is primarily drawn from the thousands of Tibetan refugees who now call India home. In pics: The legacy of French fashion designer Pierre Cardin, who passed away at 98. of its existence reportedly came after SFF personnel participated in an abortive operation with the CIA in 1965 to place a nuclear-powered device on Mount Nanda Devi to monitor China’s nuclear weapons tests. What is the Special Frontier Force (SFF)? Also Read: Army thwarting PLA on Pangong Tso south bank is a warning that India is ‘fighting fit’. by Jaideep Mazumdar - Sep 3, 2020 04:33 PM. It was envisaged that women working alongside men would be able to provide better camouflage. In fact, the … Listen to Teshi Tenzin whose son was injured in a mine blast. It doesn’t fall under the purview of the Indian Army but is under the Cabinet Secretariat that reports to the prime minister. The Special Frontier Force has shown its might on every front. Former Army Chief Gen Dalbir Singh held that office at one point. Very disgusting to reveal secrets intelligence input to rival country just to get media Publicity.it is called breach of security. Inside a truck, draped in the Indian tricolor, lay the coffin of Company Leader Nyima Tenzin of the Special Frontier Force (SFF), an elite paratroop unit manned by volunteers from the 120,000-strong Tibetan refugee community in India. In an article on September 3 on the use of the SFF, it said: “These exiled Tibetans only act as cannon fodder in India’s attempt to nibble into China’s interests on the border issue… Does India dare to openly recognize ‘Tibet secessionism’ and deny that Tibet is an inalienable part of China? The force and is headed by a Major General rank Army officer, who serves as Inspector General of the SFF. They played a vital role in preventing the escape of Pakistan Army personnel from Bangladesh into Burma. , wary as it has been about the Tibetan government-in-exile and spiritual leader Dalai Lama setting up base in India after their escape in the wake of a failed uprising against Chinese occupation in 1959. Details of many operations, however, are classified. This is serious stuff , and should NOT contribute to “open source” intelligence to the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army. The exact strength of the force right now could not be determined. It has been a part of many important ops, from 1971 war to Kargil. 22 or Special Frontier Force represents a military alliance/pact between the United States, India, and Tibet to confront the military threat posed by the Communist Red Dragon’s occupation of Tibet since 1950. A Special Frontier Force or the SFF which is also known as the Vikas battalion is one of the most ‘mysterious’ armed units of India. Also in Explained | In India-China standoff in Ladakh, why Chushul is critical. As the force was envisaged as one that would work behind enemy lines, all SFF soldiers are trained parachutists. * The moderation of comments is automated and not cleared manually by, Copyright © 2020 The Indian Express [P] Ltd. All Rights Reserved. (PTI Photo), India's economy in 2020: Year of many questions, How to measure aerosols with a particle counter, after accounting for dust, The mutation of viruses, and the coronavirus mutant in the UK, The biggest lesson from 2020: compassion and selflessness, The web shows that thrilled, entertained and comforted us this year, School toppers (1996-2015): Who’s who — and where, 20 years on, where are the Board toppers? There are only 85,000 Tibetans in India. What is the Special Frontier Force (SFF)? Speaking to ThePrint on the condition of anonymity, a source in the security establishment said both men and women soldiers in the SFF are “highly motivated and trained special forces personnel”. Indian Army Intelligence Battalion . In an interview to India Today, Tibetologist Claude Arpi said the force was the brainchild of former Intelligence Bureau director B.N. The SFF also has a substantial percentage of Tibetan refugees who want to serve voluntarily and are gainfully employed in the terrain that they are suited for,” he said. in the Indian and Tibetan flags, brought focus on an extremely secretive security force comprising trained mountain warriors. The Thakung and Kala Top peaks on the southern bank of Pagong Lake were captured by the Special Frontier Force of the Indian Army. Akin to the US Special Forces, every member is trained as a para-commando and operates undercover in conjunction with the Indian military. The units comprising the SFF are known as Vikas battalions. It is commonly believed that the SFF was raised by India in coordination with US intelligence agencies. What made Centre change its approach from incentivising states to forcing down reforms? SFF was raised in the immediate aftermath of the 1962 Sino-India war. The original task as envisaged was clandestine operations behind the lines in Tibet. (Chowdhury, 2015). Asked about the dual control of the SFF, he said, “We have different forces under different verticals. With the wound of occupation still fresh, many Tibetans volunteered for the force when approached by India, and the SFF soon had 6,000 members. The Special Frontier Force is believed to have played a big role in recent operations at the India-China border. आशा है, कोई तो इस मुद्दे को उठाने का काम करेंगे। They also prevented Pakistani troops from escaping into Myanmar, according to a piece on the website of the Delhi-based think-tank Observer Research Foundation (ORF). Special Frontier Force – All You Need To Know. Click here to join our channel (@indianexpress) and stay updated with the latest headlines. Special Frontier Force | Russell Jesse | ISBN: 9785508632571 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Such is the secrecy around the SFF that a member of Tibet’s Parliament-in-exile reportedly said after Nyima’s death that it was about time India acknowledges the role they play. The current SFF force levels are around 10,000 men. India needs free, fair, non-hyphenated and questioning journalism even more as it faces multiple crises. The SFF has played an important role in multiple military operations — from the 1971 India-Pakistan war to the 1999 Kargil battle — but has largely functioned under the shadows. The Special Frontier Force had its origins in the disaster of the 1962 war with China and in fact shares its birthday with the prime minister at that time, Jawaharlal Nehru. But you, being you ” The Print”. was the brainchild of former Intelligence Bureau director B.N. Click here to join our channel (@ieexplained) and stay updated with the latest. SFF was raised in the immediate aftermath of the 1962 Sino-India war. In 1971, the SFF operated in the Chittagong hill tracts to neutralise Pakistan Army positions and help the Indian Army advance. This article is about the Indian unit known as the Special Frontier Force (SFF), also known as Establishment 22 or Two-Two, and occasionally as the “Phantoms of Chittagong”. “This is because local residents are most suited to work and operate in high altitude and rugged terrain with harsh climate,” he added. However, when they operate, they all work in synergy with each other.”, Also Read: India is being responsible but don’t doubt our ability to defend, Rajnath tells China. 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